Law: Law in America
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A The history of the law system in America.
B The difference between British law schools and American law schools.
C The development of education laws in America.
D The history of law schools in America.
2. According to the lecture, which of the following is NOT mentioned as main changes in the late 19th century at Harvard University?
A Some applicants were required to test an entrance examination to get admitted to the school.
B Case studies became the main method of teaching.
C Studying law became a 3 year endeavor.
D Students should pass the comprehensive examination to graduate from the school.
Law: Law in America
“While America was being colonized, that is from 1607 to 1776, those who were interested in pursuing a career in law had to go to England and attend Inns of Court for their legal training. These inns where far from schools, but were merely part of the English law society and help students familiarize themselves with English law. It was common for people who wanted to be lawyers to undertake a clerkship or an apprenticeship with somebody already established in the legal world. Once America became United States of America independent from the British the rules and regulations for becoming a lawyer were very lax and the number of people who became lawyers sky rocketed. The most common way for someone to enter the legal world was by apprenticeship. But as time went on law schools were established at various law offices which focused on training. The 1st school was Litchfield School in Connecticut in 1784 and focused on commercial law. Colleges slowly added law as part of their course offerings, but it was not until 1817 that Harvard University established the 1st independent law school. From 1850 to 1900 the number of law schools grew from 15 to 102. These schools did not require that students hold an undergraduate degree when entering and it was norm for the program to be completed in 1year. However in the late 1800s there were more and more 2year programs. The teaching of law went through a radical change in Harvard University.
Students who did not already have an undergraduate degree had to take an entrance exam. By 1871 the course was 2years long and by 1876 it was 3years long. At the end of the 1st year there was a comprehensive exam that had to be passed if the student wanted to continue on to the next year of study. The most dramatic change which is still in practice today is the way teaching is done. Instead of listening to lectures students studied cases. From the cases that were studied students were expected to understand the principles of law. What they meant and how they developed. Teaching followed the ancient Greek style Socratic questioning so students would discover the foundations of the laws represented by each case. As the need for more lawyers grew by the late 1800s the number of law schools that opened also grew. Not a lot of money was needed to open a law school and as a result several were opened. There were even night schools for studying law many of which had lawyers and judges as teachers. A problem with many of the schools that opened was that the standards were low and the material studied had an emphasis on what was customary in a specific region. The most important contribution of this is that studying law became available to everybody and not just the rich of the upper class. By the turn of the century there was a dramatic increase in the number of people studying law. By 1960s schools had to be selective in who they permitted entrance. To better represent the nation law schools began to look for female and minority students. The curriculum was changing too. Civil rights along with poverty issues along with international law was being taught”以上就是嘉卓小编为大家分享的关于托福听力特训资料下载，希望对大家有所帮助!最后预祝大家托福考试中取得佳绩!