The Book of the Dead
The Book of the Dead is the name given by Egyptologists to a collection of chapters made up of groups of spells, incantations, and mummification techiniques. This book was designed to help the deceased live a happy afterlife in "heaven". The book was supposed to be read by the deceased during their journey into the Underworld.It is New Kingdom text, which is similar to many texts found in the pyranmids. The texts found in the pyramids are classified as the Old Kingdome text, and the text found in Egyptian coffins are classified as the Middle Kingdom text.Both texts outline the ceremony performed at the funeral of an important person. The movies have led us to believe that we should not read from The Book of the Dead, but in fact ,the book needed to be read by ancient Egyptians interested in an afterlife. To put it in modern terms, think about how modern religious rituals are run.You go to your place of worship, and rituals and holy texts are read out to you from a book. In Ancient Egypt,these burial rituals weren't immediately read from a book. At first ,they were read directly off the walls of their chambers of a pyramid and later were read directly off the sides of the coffins. The Book of the Dead was read off of papyrus sheets, much as religious rituals today are read out of books. Like some modern day holy books, The Book of the Dead was meant to be relatively cheap to purchase, unlike buying a pyramid or a coffin. This would ensure that any fairly well-off person could buy a hand-written copy of the book and use it on a loved one. if you were an Egypian with a fair bit of money in the Neq Kingdom, you would buy a copy of the book that would have blanks where the name of the loved one should be placed. Then all you had to do was hire someone called a scribe to write the name in all the blank spots.
The Book of the Dead
1. What is the main topic of the lecture?
A Three Kingdoms in Ancient Egypt.
B Burial ritual and The Book of the Dead in Ancient Egypt.
C Mummification and pyramids in Ancient Egypt.
D Funeral in Ancient Egypt and modern religious rituals.
2. What is the main method that the professor uses for the explanation?
B Giving examples.
C Quoting researchers’ words
D Telling related fables.